Mr. Pessina has served as our Executive Vice Chairman since January 2015 and as our Chief Executive Officer since July 2015, having served as our Acting Chief Executive Officer from January 2015 to July 2015. Previously, he served as Executive Chairman of Alliance Boots from July 2007 to December 2014. Prior to that, he served as Executive Deputy Chairman of Alliance Boots. Prior to the merger of Alliance UniChem and Boots Group, he was the Executive Deputy Chairman of Alliance UniChem, previously having served as its Chief Executive Officer for three years through December 2004. He was appointed to the board of directors of Alliance UniChem in 1997 when UniChem merged with Alliance Santé, the Franco-Italian pharmaceutical wholesale group he established in Italy in 1977. Mr. Pessina served on the board of directors of Galenica AG, a publicly-traded Swiss healthcare group, from 2000 to 2017. He serves on the board of directors of a number of privately-held companies.